River valleys - Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park North America

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Fourteen miles of the Gunnison's deep gorges are within this 31,000-acre National Park. Since it can be a bit hazardous to enter the backcountry, permits are required and be very wary of where and how you drive the road. Eight miles east of Montrose you can access the South Rim observation points. The North Rim is accessible from Crawford and the last few miles are gravel, not asphalt. At the Gunnison Visitor Center, you can gain information on all types of activities. These include interpretive programs such as the Park's history, houses, geology and plants and animals. Camping and food are located with Black Canyon of the Gunnison State Park and well rested on livejasmin.

For outdoor fun a great place to visit is the Black Canyon of The Gunnison National Park in Colorado. As the name suggests its most prominent features are the Gunnison River and the awe-inspiring black canyon that it has carved.

The jasmin live activities in the park revolve around exploring these natural wonders. The hiking trails here pass by steep drop offs and promise dramatic views of the park. The following is a jasminlive list of some of the most stunning trails in the park- current

Rim Rock Nature trail (moderate)
Cedar Point Nature trail (easy)
Chasm Viet Nature trail (moderate)
Deadhorse trail (moderate)

If you are not a huge fan of walking, you can also experience the magic of the park on horseback. The North Rim has the only horse trail in the jasminelive park that allows recreational riding.

Kayaking in the park is exhilarating and extremely challenging. The rapids here fall in Class V; this means that you should only attempt to take them on if you are expert. The river flows with such speed in some parts that even the most experienced and skilled kayakers may find it difficult to traverse past the rapids. Several streamate people have lost their lives trying to tame the wild rapids here. So, make sure you know what you are getting yourself in to before you attempt kayaking here.

In the smoother parts of the Gunnison river, ranger led boating tours are organized. The moonlight boat tours are extremely popular among visitors here, as they allow visitors to experience the magic of the star studded night sky.

Fishing and bird watching are also popular activities here. National Park is designated as Gold Medal Water & Wild Trout Water, as they provide excellent trout fishing opportunities. However, only catch and release fishing is allowed for all Rainbow trout and 12-16 inch brown trout. Bird watching enthusiasts may be able to spot peregrine falcon, cooper's hawk, blue grouse, golden eagles, turkey vultures, red tailed hawks, canyon wren, etc, during spring and summers.

Glacial valleys - Yosemite Valley USA

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Yosemite National Park is located in the central Sierra Nevada of California. The Yosemite Valley is glacial and is about 8 miles (13km) long and up to 8,000 feet (2,400 m) deep and forms a great hiking venue. Yosemite hiking is an adventurous pastime especially the climb up Half Dome Mountain.

The climb is fantastic and has every hiking element you can expect to experience when you are hiking in Yosemite. However there are some problems and some challenges that you will need to prepare for to complete this epic journey.

This particular climb involves a 5000ft climb and takes over 16 hours to complete. You start in the Yosemite Valley. There is more than one route up but the recommendation is to hike the John Muir trail.

One of the reasons this hike is so great is that it takes you through spectacular scenery over the Yosemite Valley. This Yosemite hike takes you past a vast gigantic waterfall that could quite literary be out of this world. The last stages of the hike is bare rock and appears to be a 90 degree climb (it is not - but is steep) and has steel cables as hand rails to pull yourself up. Many hikers have stated that this Yosemite hiking experience up Half Dome Mountain is a once in a lifetime hike.

Now the areas you need to take notice of and prepare for.

1. It is a long strong hike. So you should be aware how fit you are and act accordingly. Make sure you are fit so you do not put yourself and others at risk

2. Ensure lots of food and water are taken for the hike. This is true for any hike in the Yosemite valley.

3. Make sure you have adequate footwear and clothing

4. The cables on the last stretch can be a problem. So take some gloves to prevent hand blisters

5. The cables can also get congested. So maybe this Yosemite hike should be tackled at off peak times.

6. Another big problem is that the natural water from the mountain contains Giardia, which will cause diarrhoea so take a water filter pump on this Yosemite hike.

So hiking the Yosemite Valley and up Half Dome Mountain is a lifetime experience filled with wonders of nature. However be prepared and use the 6 steps above to ensure your Yosemite Hiking experience is fantastic and safe.

Rift valley - Albertine Rift Rwanda

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Rwanda as a country located in East Africa is best known today for two things, that is to say, the genocide and gorillas. Fortunately the latter is part of history and the country can concentrate on the former. As one of the best places to view the mountain gorillas, and with spectacular scenery and a rich diversity of species, Rwanda is fast gaining a reputation on the tourism map.

But why is Rwanda so blessed? It has all to do with its location on the African continent. Rwanda lies on the eastern rim of the geological phenomenon known as the Albertine Rift.

The Great Rift Valley stretches almost 5000km from the Arabian Peninsula, through east Africa into the northern reaches of Mozambique. It is the result of the separation of the African and Arabian tectonic plates, a process that began around 35 million years ago in the north. The process is continued by the ongoing separation of East Africa from the rest of Africa along the East African Rift.

In East Africa the rift is characterized by two distinct separations, the eastern rift - which is what most people think of when they hear the term 'rift valley' - and the little known western rift, known as the Albertine Rift.

The Albertine Rift stretches from the northern end of Lake Albert to the southern end of Lake Tanganyika extending through the countries of Uganda, Rwanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Burundi and Tanzania.

It is one of Africa's most important biodiversity conservation sites. This rift incorporates the ice fields on top of the Rwenzori Mountains, active volcanoes, hot springs, bamboo, alpine vegetation, montane forest, savanna and the lowland forests of Semliki. The snow-capped Ruwenzori Mountains form one of the largest and most significant catchment areas in Uganda, and are the most permanent source of the White Nile.

The Albertine Rift forms the epicenter of Africa's montane rainforest circle. Both its fauna and flora have links to the west and southwest with Cameroon and Angola, to the northeast with the Kenyan Highlands, and the southeast with the Eastern Arc Mountains, and ultimately via the Malawi Rift with southern Africa.

On the western side it abuts the Guinea-Congolian lowland rainforest. Collectively, its central location within Africa, juxtaposition of habitats, and prevalent altitudinal zonation, makes the Albertine Rift globally outstanding for its high species diversity and large numbers of endemics; highlighted by the area containing the world's last population of Mountain Gorilla.

Covering only 1% of the African continent's landmass, the Albertine Rift nevertheless contains more than 50% of mainland Africa's bird species and almost 40% of its mammal species. The Albertine Rift area also contains more endemic mammals, birds and amphibians than any other site in mainland Africa.

Despite making up such a small percentage of the total landmass of Africa the Albertine Rift also contains almost 15% of Africa's plant species.

There are a number of sites in the Albertine Rift that are protected as National Parks, Wildlife Reserves or Forest Reserves, represented in all the countries. Some of the better known national parks include:

- Virunga NP, DRC
- Bwindi Impenetrable NP, Uganda
- Rwenzori Mountains NP, Uganda
- Queen Elizabeth NP, Uganda
- Kibale NP, Uganda
- Virunga Volcanoes, DRC, Rwanda, Uganda
- Nyungwe NP, Rwanda
- Kahuzi Biega NP, DRC

With an increase in tourism and the realization of the importance of the area, protection will increase and funding will be become more freely available. However, unrest in the Democratic Republic of Congo is still of great concern for the future of the Albertine Rift area.

The area is an important watershed for the supply of clean water to the communities living not only in the vicinity but those in further reaches and the lakes are the most productive in Africa necessitating strict conservation measures. The increase in tourism to the area should provide the push needed to overcome any negative ideas associated with this incredible wilderness destination.

Vale - the term

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A valley in its broadest geographic sense is also known as a dale. A valley through which a river runs may also be referred to as a vale. A small, secluded, and often wooded valley is known as a dell or in Scotland as a glen. A wide, flat valley through which a river runs is known in Scotland as a strath. A mountain cove is a small valley, closed at one or both ends, in the central or southern Appalachian Mountains which sometimes results from the erosion of a geologic window. A small valley surrounded by mountains or ridges is sometimes known as a hollow. A deep, narrow valley is known as a coon (also spelled combe or coombe). Similar geological structures, such as canyons, ravines, gorges, gullies, and kloofs, are not usually referred to as valleys.